Краткие сообщения Института археологии. Выпуск 223 /
Гл. ред. Н.А. Макаров. М.: Наука, 2009
Евразия: механизмы культурных перемен
[pdf] Л.И. Авилова, Е.В. Антонова. Древняя Евразия: Интерпретации свидетельств культурных перемен
[pdf] А.Н. Гей. О характере, критериях и векторах миграционных процессов бронзового века Циркумпонтийской зоны
[pdf] В.И. Мельник. Миграционные процессы на Ближнем Востоке и их связь с аридизацией климата в III–II тыс. до н. э.
[pdf] А.В. Сафронов. «Народы моря» и Ближний Восток: этнополитические процессы в конце XIII – начале XII в. до н. э.
[pdf] Л.И. Авилова. Металлопроизводство древней Анатолии: специфика региона
[pdf] С.А. Рузанова. Металлургия древнего Египта в раннем бронзовом веке
[pdf] М.В. Андреева. Традиции и новации в погребальном обряде катакомбных племен Северо-Восточного Предкавказья
[pdf] А.А. Клещенко. Катакомбные памятники Закубанья и поздний этап эпохи средней бронзы в Предкавказье
[pdf] Н.А. Николаева. Этнокультурные процессы на Северном Кавказе в III–II тыс. до н. э. по данным археологии, лингвистики и мифологии
[pdf] А.Ю. Скаков. Некоторые проблемы истории Северо-Западного Закавказья в эпоху поздней бронзы – раннего железа
[pdf] О.А. Брилева. Сравнительный анализ набора антропоморфной пластики центрального, западного и восточного вариантов кобанской культуры
[pdf] Г.Г. Пятых. К проблеме генезиса деревянных погребальных сооружений в срубной культуре Заволжья
[pdf] Е.В. Антонова. К проблеме формирования Бактрийско-маргианского археологического комплекса
[pdf] Н.А. Дубова. Миграции и торговля: антропологические заметки
[pdf] Л.А. Чвырь. Этнографические заметки о проблеме миграций
[pdf] Н.И. Шишлина, Н.В. Панасюк, М.М. Пахомов, А.А. Бобров. Степная археологическая экспедиция ГИМ: результаты этноботанических исследований
[pdf] В.И. Мельник. Катакомбная культурно-историческая общность/область: структура, номенклатура, динамика развития (Хроника)
* * *
Eurasia: the Mechanisms of Cultural Transformation
L.I. Avilova, E.V. Antonova. Ancient Eurasia: Interpretations of the evidences of cultural transformations
A.N. Gei. On migration processes in the Bronze Age within the Circumpontic zone: Their nature, criteria, and directions
V.I. Melnik. Migration processes in the Near East and their relation to the aridization of climate in the 3rd – 2nd mill. BC
A.V. Safronov. The «Sea Peoples» and the Near East: Ethno-political processes in the late 13th – early 12th cc. BC
L.I. Avilova. Early metal production in Anatolia: Regional specifics
S.A. Ruzanova. Ancient Egyptian metallurgy in the Early Bronze Age
M.V. Andreeva. Traditions and innovations in burial rite of the Catacomb tribes in North-Eastern Caucasus piedmonts
A.A. Kleshchenko. Catacomb sites of the Kuban left bank region and the late stage of the Middle Bronze Age in the North Caucasus piedmonts
N.A. Nikolaeva. Ethno-cultural processes in the North Caucasus in the 3rd – 2nd millennia BC according to the data of archaeology, linguistics, and mythology
A.Yu. Skakov. Some problems of the history of the North-Western Transcaucasus in the epoch of the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages
O.A. Brileva. Comparative analysis of anthropomorphic figurines from the Central, Western, and Eastern variants of Koban culture
G.G. Pyatykh. On the genesis of wooden burial constructions in Timber-grave (Srubnaya) culture of the Transvolga region
E.V. Antonova. On the problem of formation of the Bactria-Margiana archaeological complex
N.A. Dubova. Migrations and trade: The anthropological evidences
L.A. Chvyr. Migrations in the mirror of the national ethnography
N.I. Shishlina, N.V. Panasyuk, M.M. Pakhomov, A.A. Bobrov. The Steppe archaeological expedition of the State Historical museum: The results of ethnobotanic investigations
V.I. Melnik. Catacomb cultural historical unity: Structure, terminology, development (Chronicle)
* * *
L.I. Avilova, E.V. Antonova. Ancient Eurasia: Interpretations of the evidences of cultural transformations
The current issue discusses the mechanisms that caused substantial transformations of archaeological cultures of the Eneolithic and Bronze Age, and partly the Iron Age within the vast territory from the Balkans and the European steppes to Western and Central Asia. Special attention is paid to the methods of analysis of archaeological sites and obtaining information of historical and cultural character. In some works the data of written sources are compared with the archaeological finds. The material remains are considered as a source of information on ancient people’s economy, changing environmental and climatic conditions, internal and external causes of transformations, probable reasons of migrations, social systems and interaction of the elite and ordinary people, exchange and its influence on the life-style of ancient communities, interrelations between centre and periphery of ancient civilizations. The decisive role of various contacts is stressed: possession of necessary materials was the precondition of emerging and development of ancient civilizations. Some articles discuss the problem of relation between ethnos and material culture; their authors do not see any direct dependence between these phenomena.
Ключевые слова: археологическая культура, трансформация, энеолит, бронзовый век, железный век, миграция, цивилизация, этнос
A.N. Gei. On migration processes in the Bronze Age within the Circumpontic zone: Their nature, criteria, and directions.
The author considers indications, nature, and trajectories of the Early and Middle Bronze Ages “kurgan cultures” in the North Pontic zone and the North Caucasus piedmonts (the 4th – 3rd mill. BC). The archaeological materials often suggest migration, but do not provide a clear answer as for concrete participants of the movements, the route and direction human groups followed. The opposite flows of the Tripolye and Maikop imports, replicas and imitations known in the steppe zone from the North Caucasus piedmonts to the North-Western Pontic zone is analysed. Unlike those who interpret this situation as the evidences of long-distance migrations, the author relates it to the existence of an early stock-breeding cultural group of the of the Novosvobodnaya – lower layer of Mikhailovka type in the Dnieper and Kuban steppes. These people were focused on contacts with agricultural groups. Thus the artefacts moved from the peripheral contact zones of this entity to its core, or in the opposite directions. Another situation dates from MBA and is related to formation of so-called Transcaucasus “kurgan culture”. The sites of the early Trialeti type (Alazani – Bedeni, or Martkopi groups) show clear steppe parallels in the burial rite and in the material culture, and thus differ substantially from the earlier Kura – Araxes ones. This evidences that the steppe animal-breeders had crossed the Caucasus range. At the same time numerous southern parallels and imports are registered in the steppe nomadic cultures (Novotitorovka, and the Azov Catacomb culture). Sometimes these facts are viewed as the testimony of coming some groups from the South; more probably we deal with adoption of cultural elements and production patterns by the northern migrants during their stay in the Transcaucasus, and their subsequent translation to the core steppe territories. Taking the said into account the researchers should be less rigid in their interpretations, when suggesting migration hypotheses, which also may be useful in deciphering other similar situations.
Ключевые слова: Кавказ, Закавказье, ранний бронзовый век, циркумпонтийская зона, Триполье, майкопская общность, катакомбная культура, курганный обряд, миграции
V.I. Melnik. Migration processes in the Near East and their relation to the aridization of climate in the 3rd – 2nd mill. BC.
A series of historical data on migrations in the Near East are analysed. The earliest evidences date from the second quarter of the 3rd mill. BC. In Mesopotamia the reign of Naram-Suen was marked by numerous intrusions. In the late 3rd mill. BC many settlements in Asia Minor were abandoned, which is sometimes associated with the migration of the Indo-Europeans from the Balkans. At the turn of the 18th and 17th cc. BC Egypt saw the Hyksos come from the East. In the 18th-17th cc. BC the Indo-Iranians appeared in North Mesopotamia. New wide-scale migrations started in the 13th c. BC, with their focal point in the Eastern Mediterranean: Palestine, the Jordan banks, the Sinai Peninsula. The most impressive one was the invasion of the Sea Peoples. Thus, mass movements of human groups occurred within a relatively short periods of time. In the East European steppes they are marked by serious cultural changes.
The historical data are compared with the climatic changes in the Near East and the temperature curve of the Northern hemisphere. Aridization in Mesopotamia took place during the temperature peak in 2800-2600 cal. BC). In 2500-2300 BC the climate is getting wet and temperature decreases. General aridization and rise of temperature is established for Southern Turkmenia in 2200-2100 BC. New temperature peak combined with wet climate dates to 1800-1700 BC. By the end of the 2nd mill. BC temperature decreases, then its successive rise is accompanied by growing aridization, and a serious draught ca. 1300 BC. Thus, major migrations coincide with worsening natural conditions, which points to their reasons. We may suppose that at least some mass movements were to a great extent caused by extremely unfavourable environmental situation.
Ключевые слова: бронзовый век, Ближний Восток, Малая Азия, миграции, климатические циклы, ливийцы, техену, Месопотамия, культура расписной керамики
A.V. Safronov. The «Sea Peoples» and the Near East: Ethno-political processes in the late 13th – early 12th cc. BC.
The paper is dedicated to the history of the Near East related to the migrations of inhabitants of the Aegean and the North-West of Anatolia (so-called «Sea Peoples») in the Late Bronze Age. In the author’s view the destruction of the Mycenaean centres of Southern Greece in the late 13th c. BC had caused the migration of the Achaeans to the Near East. Part of this migration was fixed in the inscriptions of the Pharaoh Merenptah that tell about the Achaens’ invasion in Egypt in 1219 BC. A part of the Achaeans tried to settle down in North-western Anatolia, the region historically linked with Mycenaean Greece. It caused the war between the Achaeans and the inhabitants of North-western Anatolia (the Pelasgoi, Teukroi, Tursenoi according to the Greek epic tradition). In author’s opinion, this war left traces both in inscriptions of the Pharaoh Ramses III telling about the devastation of the homeland of such tribes as the Peleset, Tjeker and Turscha (Egyptian ethnic names which are identified with the Pelasgoi, Teukroi, Tursenoi). This war was engraved in the Greek memory as the legend cycles concerning the Trojan war. The devastation of the motherland of the tribes mentioned in the Egyptian sources caused the migration of the inhabitants of North-western Anatolia to Syria, Palestine and Egypt in 1193 and 1190 BC.
Ключевые слова: бронзовый век, Ближний Восток, Восточное Средиземноморье, миграции, народы моря
L.I. Avilova. Early metal production in Anatolia: Regional specifics.
The author presents the results of statistical analysis of the unique computer DB on metal objects of the Chalcolithic, EBA and MBA, and suggests a model of metal production in Anatolia. It is distinguished by independent early discovery of metal combined with strikingly slow development of production until the 4th mill. BC. Metals were slowly introduced during the Eneolithic; in EBA production growth was substantial. MBA shows a sharp rise of production, immense morphological diversity, wide-scale manufacturing prestigious objects of gold. Generally, the Anatolian metal production clearly follows leap-forward-like pattern. The comparative analysis of the Anatolian and the Balkan metal demonstrates principally different regional production models. In the Balkans introduction of copper was followed by the Eneolithic production boom. The Balkan EBA sees cardinal changes in general cultural situation, and a crisis of metal production; then it gradually grows, but remains incomparable with what we know from Anatolia. The author explains the situation by different general patterns of the regions’ economic and social development. Environmental conditions in Central and Western Anatolia and the Balkans did not demand irrigation and amassing strategic food resources, unlike the Near East. The egalitarian society of rural type functioned there successfully. In the Balkan-Danubian Eneolithic not a single indication of the early urban and early state model of development is present. The Balkan elite organized search and production of metal within the framework of the chiefdom social system. On the contrary, the Anatolian metal production had emerged locally and was closely related to the Near Eastern civilisation model developing from the village communities to the complex rank society with early urban and early state structures. The local elite functioned as the organizer of production and exchange, the consumer of prestigious objects, including metal.
Ключевые слова: Анатолия, Троя, металлургия, энеолит, бронзовый век, базы данных, история металлообработки
S.A. Ruzanova. Ancient Egyptian metallurgy in the Early Bronze Age.
The article analyses the development of metallurgy in Ancient Egypt during the Early Bronze Age. The author presents the analysis of morphology of finds made of copper and copper-based alloys, their chemical formulas, and technology of metalworking. Some general trends in development of metal production in the discussed region are revealed. The author characterizes the position occupied by the ancient Egyptian metal production within the framework of the early metallurgy of the Near East.
Ключевые слова: ранний бронзовый век, египет, медь, металлургия
M.V. Andreeva. Traditions and innovations in burial rite of the Catacomb tribes in North-Eastern Caucasus piedmonts.
The appearance of East Manych Catacomb culture burials in the kurgans of the East Stavropol Region and Kalmykia (MBA, the second part of the 3rd millennium BC) is marked by serious changes in the burial rite: position of the dead; proportions of burial constructions; types and set of funeral gifts. Such changes are usually regarded as the evidence of new population’s coming. However, the detailed research of structures of higher level than burials proper (kurgans and cemeteries with burials of different age) has not been started yet. It is in this field that cultural continuity of the East Manych burial rite with earlier cultural traditions can be traced. The article deals with 5 aspects of burial rite that point to the cultural continuum covering the EBA and MBA kurgan horizons. 1. Arrangement of the cemeteries stresses the relationship between the EBA and MBA burials: the majority of the East Manych burials are dug into the EBA kurgans) (Figs. 1-3). 2. Specifics of children burials’ arrangement suggests that: a) the representatives of East Manych culture were aware of the age of the dead buried in the pre-Catacomb and early Catacomb period, and b) this information was taken into account while digging new graves. Thus the structural unity of new and old burials in the kurgan was preserved. 3. Rare cases of deliberate superimposing of one association over another may be regarded as an evidence of “the ideology of continuity”. 4. Construction of offering places in the mounds containing cattle skulls and extremities started in the NE Caucasus piedmonts in EBA and continued up to MBA. The “addressees” of such sacrifices were the ancestors buried in the central graves according to the East Manych burial rite and the earlier cultures’ rites (Pit-grave culture, the North Caucasus culture, the Early Catacomb one). 5. S and E orientation and position of the dead (deposited on their left side) appears to be a symmetric “response” to the characteristics typical of the West Manych Catacomb tribes of the NW Caucasus piedmonts that practiced N and W orientation and deposited their dead on their right side. Thus, the both Manych groups used a universal cultural space-code known in that territory from the EBA. Generally, one of the most important of these social and demographic (from the archaeological point of view – cultural) changes in the NE Caucasus piedmonts was transformation of the marriage system. It was the way to build a unity of new cultural standards within the wide territory occupied by the Manych tribes without substantial movements of family-clan communities.
Ключевые слова: бронзовый век, раннее средневековье, Предкавказье, катакомбная культура, восточноманычская культура, западноманычская культура, демография, погребальный обряд, некрополь, жертвенные комплексы
A.A. Kleshchenko. Catacomb sites of the Kuban left bank region and the late stage of the Middle Bronze Age in the North Caucasus piedmonts.
The paper considers the problems of cultural attribution of the group of Late Catacomb burials in the steppe region on the Kuban left bank. The author presents the comparative typological analysis of pottery from the discussed burials, and vessels from the Baturiano culture, and the Upper Kuban variant of the North Caucasus Catacomb culture. As a result, inhomogeneity of pottery from the Kuban left-bank sites is established; those in the steppe region show their affiliation with the North Kuban traditions, while the sites situated farther south (the Uspensky cemetery) are related to the burials of the piedmont zone (the Ust’- Djeguta, Suvorovo, and Kholodnorodnikovsky cemeteries). Anyway, close relationship between the entire group of the Late Catacomb burials of the Kuban left bank, and those on the Upper Kuban is stressed, which is mirrored both by the unified burial rite (supine position of the dead deposited in T-shape catacombs) and the general pattern of evolution of the burial rite in the considered regions.
Ключевые слова: бронзовый век, Предкавказье, катакомбная культура, керамический комплекс
N.A. Nikolaeva. Ethno-cultural processes in the North Caucasus in the 3rd – 2nd millennia BC according to the data of archaeology, linguistics, and mythology.
The article deals with the migration of a part of the population from the Old European homeland (according to H. Krahe located in Central Europe between the Rhine and the Vistula) to the central areas of the Northern Caucasus. As a result of that movement in the Northern Caucasus in the 21st c. BC there appeared the Kuban-Terek Bronze Age culture settled in the area between the Upper Kuban and the Upper Terek rivers. Later on in the 16th c. BC it mixed with Catacomb culture. This culture was strongly linked with the context of the Old European ethno-linguistic cultural unity, such as globular amphorae culture (the 28th – 23rd cc. BC), early horizon of corded ware culture (the 28th – 20th cc. BC) and Zlota culture (the 22nd – 20th cc. BC). The fact of such migration is supported by archaeological data (over 30 identical types of pottery, 14 identical barrow constructions used in the burial rite), by mythological data (rare mythological subjects in «The Narth Epics», in the ancient German and Celtic epics and myths, Russian folk fairy tales, in the Baltic folklore and myths of the Indo-Arians). In author’s opinion the main evidences of the migration besides the mentioned above archaeological data are Old-European words (more than 400 units) adopted by the Carthlian languages (according to Klimov).
Ключевые слова: Северный Кавказ, древнеевропейцы, северокавказская семья языков, археология, языкознание, кубанско-терская культура, культура шаровидных амфор, погребальное сооружение
A.Yu. Skakov. Some problems of the history of the North-Western Transcaucasus in the epoch of the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages.
The paper deals with the history of the North-Western Transcaucasus (now the territory of Republic of Abkhazia) in the Late Bronze – Early Iron Ages. The antique written sources and archaeological materials suggest that several tribes and tribal units lived in the region. At present local Colchis culture should not be considered a single entity: two archaeological cultures are singled out in the region – the Bzyb Colchis culture and the Inguri-Rioni Colchis culture. Together with Lechkhumo-Imereti Colchis, West Koban, Central Koban and East Koban, South Ossetian Koban cultures the two above cultures formed a single Koban-Colchis historical and cultural entity. The cultures are singled out by a series of cultural markers, taking into account meta-cultural phenomena and reliable imports. The Bzyb and Inguri-Rioni cultures emerged at the turn of the 2nd and the 1st mill. BC, the principal role was played by local production centres influenced by the Koban tribes of the Central Caucasus, which is mirrored in the morphology of metal finds and introduction of cremation burial rite. In the second part of the 7th – the first part of the 6th cc. BC the early nomads caused cultural crisis in the North-Western Colchis. From that time onward stable relations between the Western Transcaucasus and West Koban culture were established. The main role in this process belonged to the trade route that linked the Kodori and Inguri river valleys, Svanetia and the Baksan gorge. In the 5th – 4th cc. BC in the territory of Abkhazia existed the Bzyb-type late Colchis culture related by many traditions to the earlier culture. In the second part of the 4th c. BC the region was the scene of some catastrophic events related to appearance an armed contingent from the Kuban River basin. By the early 3rd c. BC the culture of local population had to a great extent lost its specific features.
Ключевые слова: Закавказье, поздний бронзовый век, ранний железный век, колхидская культура, меотская культура
O.A. Brileva. Comparative analysis of anthropomorphic figurines from the Central, Western, and Eastern variants of Koban culture.
The comparative analysis of metal anthropomorphic figurines within three variants of Koban culture shows a complicated picture of interaction between the Caucasian cultures not only in the material culture, but in the spiritual sphere as well. The author outlines the core area in development of different variants of Koban culture – the territory occupied by the Central Koban culture, Zandak and Colchis cultures, and the Iberian state. In this region developed the processes that determined the phenomenon of metal anthropomorphic images in the Caucasus during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages.
Ключевые слова: поздний бронзовый век, ранний железный век, кобанская культура, антропоморфная металлопластика
G.G. Pyatykh. On the genesis of wooden burial constructions in Timber-grave (Srubnaya) culture of the Transvolga region.
The genesis of wooden constructions in the burial associations of Srubnaya culture is discussed on the materials known from the Transvolga region. The problem is analysed against the wide-scale background, with comparative material from the Ural region, the Don and the Dnieper basins. The author puts forward the hypothesis on generally western origin of the tradition of furnishing Srubnaya burials with timber constructions in the Transvolga region.
Ключевые слова: средний бронзовый век, Заволжье, срубная культура, абашевская культура, погребальный обряд
E.V. Antonova. On the problem of formation of the Bactria-Margiana archaeological complex.
Making an attempt to investigate the genesis of the Bactria-Margiana archaeological complex (BMAC) the author turns her attention to the traditions of the Anau Eneolithic culture. At least from the mid 4th millennium BC a wide zone of cultural interaction was formed within the territory of functioning BMAC. Of key importance were the early civilizations, anyway, the “periphery” was also ready to respond their interaction call. The similarities in the materials culture that formerly were viewed as the indications for dating periods and associations represent not just “reference points”, but the evidences of contacts. They look rather clearly within the chronological span of the 4th – 2nd millennia BC. BMAC formation is interpreted as a result of a situation, which may be considered unique, when continuity of a series of basic cultural indications was preserved for a thousand-year-long period. At the same time, the dialogue maintained by the neighbouring cultures from the Indus valley to the Eastern Mediterranean contributed to formation of a specific culture. Local environmental situation, social transformations and alien influences participated in its emergence. As a result, the phenomena, images and ideas that circulated in local culture acquired new shapes.
Ключевые слова: поздний бронзовый век, бактрийско-маргианский археологический комплекс, БМАК, культура Намазга, антропоморфная пластика
N.A. Dubova. Migrations and trade: The anthropological evidences.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the demographic situation and investigation of the anthropological materials from the necropolis of the temple assemblage of Gonur-depe (the late 3rd – mid 2nd millennia BC), South Turkmenistan). The remains of over 700 individuals have been studied with application of the methods of physical anthropology. The analysis has shown unconditionally that the investigated population was of migrant origin. Unlike the craniological series already known from Turkmenistan, the Gonur sample shows substantial dimorphism of the population. In the investigated materials the dominating anthropological component is the Eastern Mediterranean one, but that of the Near Eastern and Weddoid origin are also present. The data clearly indicate mutual migrations relating the Near East and the Eastern Mediterranean, on the one hand, and the territories of Pakistan and Afghanistan, on the other hand.
Ключевые слова: неолит, бронзовый век, юго-западная Азия, Гонур, некрополь, индоевропейцы, БМАК, антропология
L.A. Chvyr. Migrations in the mirror of the national ethnography.
The article presents a review of a wide range of the questions related to the theme of migrations in the ethnographic investigations. Among the aspects the author touches upon, special attention is paid to the one especially important for archaeological and historical investigations, namely, the analysis of the mechanisms of cultural interactions between the multiethnic groups of strange and aboriginal origin and the varied influence new ethnic milieu exerted upon the newcomers.
Ключевые слова: межкультурное взаимодействие, полиэтническое общество, этнография, миграционные процессы, диаспоры
N.I. Shishlina, N.V. Panasyuk, M.M. Pakhomov, A.A. Bobrov. The Steppe archaeological expedition of the State Historical museum: The results of ethnobotanic investigations.
Since 2003 the Steppe archaeological expedition of the State Historical museum (Moscow) has carried on excavations in the Middle Yergeni hills area (Rostov-on-Don region). The expedition investigates the kurgan cemeteries of the Bronze and Iron Ages, as well as the Medieval necropolises. The published paper presents the results of special analysis of the content discovered in clay “incense cups” – a special category of ritual vessels that played an important role in the burial rite of Catacomb cultures. The new data obtained confirm that the considered vessels were used in the burial rite as ritual objects designed for burning different plants. The latter were identified by their remains. The authors discuss the semantics of this ritual, taking into account that the plants discovered in the incense cups produce a strong smell, when burnt, and their smoke often has disinfecting properties. Of special interest is the fact that some cups contained the remains of herbs with medical properties known in the popular medicine that are usually not burnt, but used for making infusions. It is possible that the Bronze Age nomads were well aware of the useful properties of these plants, and used them in their burial rites for cleansing the dead.
Ключевые слова: бронзовый век, железный век, средневековье, Ростовская область, катакомбная культура, глиняные курильницы, палеоботанические исследования
Translated by L.I. Avilova