Краткие сообщения Института археологии. Выпуск 221 /
Гл. ред. Н.А. Макаров. М.: Наука, 2007
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Конференция «Археология Северо-Восточной Руси. Проблемы и материалы»
Н.А. Макаров, А.Е. Леонтьев. Н.Н. Воронин и археологическое изучение Северо-Восточной Руси
Н.А. Макаров. Ростово-суздальская колонизация на Севере: Новые археологические данные
С.Д. Захаров. Оборонительные сооружения как индикатор социального статуса северорусских поселений
А.А. Зайцев. «Племя княже Ростиславле» и смоленское зодчество второй половины XII в.
В.Ю. Коваль. О древнерусских амулетах-змеевиках
Т.Г. Сарачева. Ювелирные изделия второй половины XIII – XVI в. с территории Северо-Восточной Руси
И.Е. Зайцева. Изготовление металлических украшений на сельских поселениях северо-восточных окраин Древней Руси
С.В. Шполянский. Вещевой комплекс селища Кленово 2 из окрестностей Перемышля Московского (к вопросу об изучении материальной культуры русской деревни после монгольского нашествия)
Н.Н. Грибов. Нижегородская округа: итоги и перспективы изучения
Н.Г. Самойлович. Стратиграфия и хронология раскопа Н.Н. Воронина в Митрополичьем саду Ростовского кремля
Е.К. Кадиева. Геральдические клейма на круговой посуде Центра Ростово-Суздальской земли: морфология и хронология
Н.И. Асташова. Обоймица ножа из раскопок Смоленска
М.Е. Родина. Атрибуция редких находок из раскопок 2004 г. на княжьем дворе во Владимире
Н.А. Тропин. Лавский археологический комплекс XI–XIV вв.: историческая оценка и этапы развития памятника
М.В. Цыбин. Периферия Золотой Орды в Подонье
А.В. Кудряшов. Исследование поселения Минино 5 на р. Большой Юг
Л.В. Кольцов. К вопросу о мезолитических инновациях
М.Г. Гусаков, С.В. Кузьминых. К вопросу о роли носителей «сетчатой» керамики в формировании культур лесной полосы в раннем железном веке
Г.Г. Король. Северокавказский всадник на парных конях: истоки иконографии и семантика
Е.М. Веремейчик, А.В. Шекун. Стеклянные браслеты поселения Лесковое
Н.Н. Грибов, В.Ю. Коваль. Восточная керамика из окрестностей Нижнего Новгорода
А.А.Карпухин, С.В.Кузьминых. Наталья Борисовна Черных и отечественная дендрохронология
Краткие сообщения Института археологии, выпуски 211–220 (содержание)
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Conference “Archaeology of North-Eastern Rus’. Problems and materials”
N.A. Makarov, A.E. Leont’ev. N.N. Voronin and archaeological researches in North-Eastern Rus’.
N.A. Makarov. The Rostov-Suzdal colonization in the North. New archaeological data.
S.D. Zakharov. Defensive constructions as an indicator of social status of north Russian dwelling sites.
A.A. Zaitsev. Prince Rostislav’s dynasty and the Smolensk architecture of the second part of the 12th c.
V.Yu. Koval. On the medieval Russian zmeevik-amulets.
T.G. Saracheva. Pieces of jewellery of the second part of the 13th – 16th cc. in the territory of North-Eastern Rus’.
I.E. Zaitseva. Production of metal ornaments at the rural dwelling sites in the North-Eastern periphery of Medieval Rus’.
S.V. Shpolyansky. The corpus of artefacts from the dwelling site Klenovo 2 in the vicinity of Peremyshl Moskovsky (on the material culture of the post-Mongol Russian village).
N.N. Gribov. Nizhniy Novgorod¢s neighborhood: results and perspectives of the investigation
N.G. Samoilovich. Stratigraphy and chronology of N.N. Voronin’s excavation trench in the Metropolitan’s Garden, the Rostov Kremlin.
E.K. Kadieva. Heraldic stamps on wheel-made pottery of the centre of the Rostov-Suzdal land: morphology and chronology.
M.E. Rodina. Attribution of some rare finds from the excavations of 2004 in the Prince Yard in Vladimir.
N.I. Astashova. Knife setting from the excavations in Smolensk.
N.A. Tropin. Lava archaeological association of the 11th-14th cc.: Historical assessment and stages of the site’s development.
A.V. Kudryashov. Investigations of the dwelling site Minino 5 on the River Bolshoi Yug.
L.V. Koltsov. Concerning the Mesolithic innovations.
M.G. Gusakov, S.V. Kuzminykh. On the role of the “net-impressed” pottery bearers in formation of the forest zone cultures in the Early Iron Age.
G.G. Korol. The North Caucasian rider on a pair of horses: The origins of the iconography and semantics.
Veremeichik E.M., Shekun A.V. Glass bracelets from the dwelling site Leskovoe.
N.N.Gribov, V.Yu. Koval. The Oriental pottery from the vicinities of Nizhny Novgorod.
A.A. Karpukhin, S.V. Kuzminykh. Natalia Borisovna Chernykh and Russian dendrochronology.
Index of publications
Kratkiye Soobshcheniya Instituta Arkheologii. Issues 211-220.
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N.A. Makarov, A.E. Leont’ev. N.N. Voronin and archaeological researches in North-Eastern Rus’
This issue of KSIA is composed of the proceedings of the scientific conference “Archaeology of North-Eastern Rus’. Problems and materials” held in November 2004 in Rostov Veliky in commemoration of the outstanding archaeologist and historian of medieval Russian architecture N.N. Voronin (1904- 1975). The presented publications help to shape an idea on the modern state of researches in North-Eastern Rus’, new trends in investigations of medieval dwelling sites, material culture, production and colonization processes. The papers do not settle all problems of the archaeological studies related to Rostov-Suzdal Rus’, but centre the reader’s attention on certain points that today are investigated most intensively. Among these there are: specifics of formation of urban centres in the North-East, the character of material culture and economy of the medieval rural dwelling sites, continuity in cultural development and craft traditions of the pre-Mongol and post-Mongol periods, cultural relationships and contacts maintained by separate urban centres and regions of Medieval Rus’. Many publications introduce into scientific circulation materials obtained by new field works in the towns and rural dwelling sites of North-Eastern Rus’ and adjacent regions, including some spectacular finds discovered recently in Vladimir, Smolensk, Myakinino archaeological assemblage in Moscow region, the Suzdal Field region. Considered as a whole, these materials reveal, on the one hand, cultural specifics of different regions in North-Eastern Rus’, and, on the other hand, show the real unity of the historical process the discussed territories were involved in, strong influence the Centre of Rostov-Suzdal land exerted on colonization and formation of cultural traditions in periphery.
N.A. Makarov in his paper devoted to the Rostov-Suzdal colonization in the North discusses new archaeological data on the settlement of the northern periphery of Medieval Rus’ in the 10th – 13th cc. The author analyses the archaeological materials from the lands disposed around the Lake Kubenskoe, in the watershed of the rivers Sheksna and Sukhona. between Beloozero and Vologda. The purposeful search of dwelling sites and cemeteries of the 10th – 13th cc. in this insufficiently investigated territory has cleared essentially the picture of medieval settlement within the region. Between the dwelling sites of the 10th – 13th cc. formed during the medieval colonization and the centres of territorial and administrative units of the late 14th – early 15th cc. known from the written sources and related to the Rostov-Suzdal principality a continuity was established. Analysis of finds from the cemeteries and dwelling sites permits to single out a significant group of ornaments typical of the Volga Finns in the second part of the 10th – the turn of the 10th and the 11th cc. They mirror penetration of the newcomers from the Volga-Klyazma interfluve to the Lake Kubenskoe region. Some types of ornaments of the 12th – the first part of the 13th cc. evidence relationships between the discussed territories.
S.D. Zakharov in his work considers defensive constructions as an indicator of social status of north Russian dwelling sites. Proceeding from the data of chronicles and archaeology, the author has grounded the urban character of the town of Beloozero situated on the River Sheksna. The town has never had fortifications traditionally viewed as the principal indication of medieval Russian urban centres.
A.A. Zaitsev discusses the role of Prince Rostislav’s dynasty in development of the Smolensk architecture of the second part of the 12th c. In the paper are considered the questions of dating of the Smolensk churches of St. John the Theologian and St. Michael Archangel and the relationship of these churches with the Smolensk princely dynasty.
V.Yu. Koval’s paper “On the medieval Russian zmeevik-amulets” is devoted to the publication of a new find of the 12th – the first part of the 13th cc. The bronze zmeevik-amulet was discovered at the dwelling site Myakinino 1 (Moscow region). The author suggests a classification of similar objects and puts forward a new idea on the provenance of the image shown on the reverse side of a series of amulets. It is supposed that the image of a snake-legged monster may find its prototype in the copper statue of Scylla, which stood in the Constantinople Hippodrome. In 1204 it was melted by the Crusaders to get metal for minting coins, according to the data from “The book on the statues of Constantinople” ascribed to Nicetas Choniates. Hence, 1204 is determined as terminus ante quem for the amulets bearing the image of Scylla.
In the article of T.G. Saracheva “Pieces of jewellery of the second part of the 13th – 16th cc. in the territory of North-Eastern Rus’” are analysed specific features of the ornamental set typical of North-Eastern Rus’ in the Golden Horde period. The studied selection comprises over 380 objects originating from 36 excavated sites, as well as occasional finds. As a result, a preliminary list of ornaments was compiled (Table 1), their repertoire was established for the period under investigation, a more accurate chronology suggested for some categories. It was established that the set and shape of jewellery and their decorative elements showed substantial influence of Oriental production. Having compared the ornaments with those of the pre-Mongol period, the author reveals a number of changes in the morphology of the studied pieces of jewellery.
I.E. Zaitseva in the paper “Production of metal ornaments at the rural dwelling sites in the North-Eastern periphery of Medieval Rus’” considers production associations related to non-ferrous metalworking excavated at the rural settlements of the late 10th – early 13th cc. in the north-eastern periphery of Medieval Rus’. The remains of producing activity were revealed at many dwelling sites excavated within rather large areas. The majority of finds associated with craft production concentrated in and around dwellings. The repertoire includes crucibles, ladles, ingots and metal spits, plate and wire fragments, defect and non-finished artefacts. After a detailed analysis of the whole corpus of finds the author comes to the conclusion that the majority of metal ornaments used by the inhabitants of distant settlements were produced locally. The craftsmen were involved into long-distant exchange to obtain raw material supplies. Nonetheless, the discussed activity remained within the framework of home trade during the whole chronological span considered. Only one construction in Myakinino 1was specially designed for production activity. The most widespread and easy technology was casting in the negatives obtained by imprinting of a finished object. The jewellers had perfectly mastered a very complicated Finno-Ugrian technique of lost-wax casting with application of “knitted” models. They used fusible lead-tin alloys, which were easy to cast, while the finished objects were of spectacular silvery colour.
The article by S.V. Shpolyansky dealing with the corpus of artefacts from the dwelling site Klenovo 2 in the vicinity of Peremyshl, Moscow region, is a research of the materials yielded by medieval rural settlements. It is aimed at revealing characteristic features in the development of the material culture of the Moscow principality at the turn of the 13th and the 14th cc. The site Klenovo 2 belonged to the most numerous group of medieval open dwelling sites – villages consisting of several households. This fact permits to consider the revealed trends characteristic. The most representative finds are belt fittings and some ornaments (bracelets’ fragments), they evidence substantial influence of the steppe and the Volga traditions on some elements of costume. To a certain extent they had ousted the ornamental set known from kurgan antiquities. The finds of pendant crosses document wide spread of Christianity; by the second part of the 13th c. the changeover to Christianity from the old pagan world-outlook was generally completed. Objects of Vyatichian types are few, which proves that these relatively late fell out of circulation and points to some characteristic features of the material culture associated with the transitional period, namely, the combination of costume details typical of different periods.
The article by N.N. Gribov “Nizhny Novgorod’s neighborhood: results and perspectives of the investigation” is a review of the researches carried out at the medieval settlements near the Oka River estuary. The author analyzes the local rural settlement structure in the historical context. The archaeological investigations have shown that Nizhny Novgorod’s neighborhood was settled in the Mongol period mainly. It included over one hundred dwelling sites situated on the right banks of the Oka and the Volga. Among the known medieval rural sites those of different social status are singled out. The region related to Nizhny Novgorod is divided into three zones in accordance with the level of the interaction the settlements maintained within the zone and beyond, with the urban centre.
N.G. Samoilovich presents a characteristic of stratigraphy and chronology of the Grigor’yevsky excavation trench in the Rostov Kremlin. The area near the church of St. Gregory the Theologian was excavated by N.N. Voronin in 1955. The field records remained unpublished until now. In the trench there were uncovered the layers related to the Merya dwelling site that preceded the emergence of the urban centre of Rostov, as described in the chronicle. Wooden dwelling constructions of the 10th – 12th cc. were revealed.
E.K. Kadieva’s paper is devoted to potter’s stamps with the signs attributed to the members of Ryurik dynasty. The stamps were imprinted on the bottoms of wheel-made vessels dating from the 11th – 13th cc. and originating from the Centre of North-Eastern Rus’. Different variants of the signs are analysed in details with the regard to their chronology. The author discusses the territorial spread of the stamps within the region in question.
The paper by M.E. Rodina introduces into scientific circulation new rare finds from the excavations of 2004 in the Prince Yard in Vladimir. Of special interest are sphragistic materials. These are: a lead plate with the imprints of three pairs of a seal attributed to Prince Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich, and another variant of seal of the same prince. These seals of Prince Svyatoslav, the son of Prince Vsevolod’s the Big Nest are for the first time discovered in Vladimir, though they are well known from Novgorod, where he reigned twice. Among the rare finds there are also instruments for processing white limestone and a detail of window grating. Of singular character is also a miniature bronze pendant showing a cock; it is stylistically associated with the birds carved on the walls of the Vladimir and Suzdal cathedrals.
N.I. Astashova publishes a knife setting from the excavations in Smolensk. The find is an iron knife with bone handle and bronze setting. Its archaeological context dates the find back to the second part of the 12th c. The setting is decorated with animal representations associated by their style with the art of the Vladimir-Suzdal land. The knife could have been brought to Smolensk by a member of a Suzdal prince’s armed guard (druzhina) who accompanied his lord during his visit to Smolensk.
N.A. Tropin publishes the paper concerning the Lava archaeological assemblage of the 11th-14th cc. The results of long-term investigations conducted by the expedition of Yelets University are summed up. The assemblage is situated on the River Bystraya Sosna. The total excavated area reaches ca. 4 thousand sq. m. Four stages of the site’s functioning have been singled out within the span of the second part of the 11th – 14th cc. The site is interpreted as an open settlement, administrative, trade and craft centre of the district. Its emergence in the late 11th c. was determined by the process of development of feudal system in the Russian periphery. The region was inhabited by the Slavic population with preserved archaic traditions in material culture. The site was destructed in the last quarter of the 14th c. marked by the crisis in the interrelations of Rus’ with the Golden Horde. In the 12th – early 14th it was the centre of an administrative unit (volost’) in the south-eastern part of the Chernigov-Seversk principality. In the 14th c. it was an administrative centre in the south of the Novosilsk principality.
A.V. Kudryashov considers investigations of the dwelling site Minino 5 on the River Bolshoi Yug. In the article there are presented the results of long-term archaeological excavations at the dwelling site of the 10th – the early 12th cc. disposed in the Sheksna River basin (the left tributary of the Volga). The site is attributed to the Finno-Ugrian tribe Ves’ characterized by a specific material culture. On its final stage the site coexisted with two medieval Russian dwelling sites.
L.V. Koltsov”s paper on the Mesolithic innovations deals with different innovations in human society (including new technologies as well as new branches of economy). The innovations may be classified as absolute and relative ones (the first emerged in the Mesolithic, but the second were resumed in the Mesolithic after some break). In stone processing technology sawing must be considered an absolute innovation. There are some new shapes of microlithic tools, certain bone and antler tools and some shapes of objects made of rocks different from flint. When fishing became a seperate branch of economy, it was a serious economic innovation accompanied by introduction of special fishing instruments (fishing hooks, nets, fish-traps, and the like). It was in the Mesolithic that means of transportation were invented: boats, sledges, skis. The other innovations should be regarded as relative ones; they were known as early as the Palaeolithic, but returned into use after a chronological break.
M.G. Gusakov and S.V. Kuzminykh raise the question on the role of the “net-impressed” pottery bearers in the history of the Volga-Oka interfluve in the Hallstat and formation of D’yakovo and Gorodets cultures. The authors dwell upon the history of investigation of the “net-impressed” pottery, in particular, they discuss the old experimental work by A.A. Bobrinsky on the simulation of net-impressed pottery. These experiments can help to explain the similarities and differences in the origin of the surface treatment known as “stamped pottery”. It is supposed that the early stage of D’yakovo culture (the 8th – 6th cc. BC) was not in fact related to this culture, but represented an independent phenomenon. It should be interpreted as the final stage of the Bronze Age of Eastern Europe, substantially postponed in the forest zone. At the same time the coeval forest-steppe communities had already passed the changeover to the Iron Age. The same reasons are responsible for slow development of the Upper Volga sites in the context of D’yakovo culture. It is stressed that at the discussed sites net-impressed pottery ceased as late as the mid 1st mill. AD.
In the paper by G.G. Korol is analyzed the image of a rider shown on a pair of horse protomas. The author analyses three bronze gilded openwork plates – the horse harness ornaments from the cemetery Kolosovka (the 10th – 11th cc.) in the Republic of Adyghei (the North Caucasus). The iconography of the subject, as well as the motif of a pair of animal protomas relates to the Near Eastern art of the first part of the 1st mill. BC represented by the Luristan bronzes. The author singles out a series of stylistic features of the medieval images that indirectly show the inherited elementst. As a transitional stage should be regarded the art of the Caucasus of the 1st mill. BC – the first part of the 1st mill. AD; probably, there existed some unknown models, not pendants, but objects with different system of attachment, and the medieval pendants were cast after these prototypes. As for the semantics, the objects are associated with a solar male deity, a protector of animals and fertility. Such pendants used as horse harness details could have served for the horse and the rider as protective amulets. Suvival of the early conservative decorative details through the centuries evidences their initial significance related to common or similar ideas.
In the article by E.M. Veremeichik and A.V. Shekun glass bracelets from the medieval Russian dwelling site Leskovoe are discussed. The site is situated on the Upper Belous River, on the riverway from Chernigov to Lyubech. Different associations dating back to the mid 11th – the first part of the 13th cc. have yielded totally 373 fragments of glass bracelets. Morphology of finds is characterized. Proceeding from spectral analyses of glass, the authors have revealed basic chemical formulas of glass used. The following conclusions are presented: the bracelets recovered at the settlement were delivered not only from the nearby workshops, but from Kiev and Byzantium as well. The authors suppose that in some cases glass bracelets were repaired by the craftsmen living at the dwelling site Leskovoe.
The paper by N.N. Gribov and V.Yu. Koval discusses the Golden Horde pottery from a number of medieval Russian rural settlements in the vicinities of Nizhny Novgorod. The largest collection was obtained from the dwelling site Blizhnee Konstantinovo 1. It was a large village dated from the late 13th – early 15th cc. Among the finds there were glazed and red-burnished vessels produced in the Golden Horde towns of the Volga basin, including the Volga Bulgaria; sherds of Iranian bowls with lustre painting; fragments of a Byzantine red-clay glazed jug with sgraffito ornamentation and several Byzantine amphorae attributed to the Trabzon group. The majority of the pottery was produced and brought to the site in the mid 14th c.
Translated by L.I. Avilova